Vetch allowed to grow for a full season can credit 120 lb/acre of N. 2. Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of It is sown in January and will provide good fodder late in winter. Hairy Vetch Vicia villosa Bean family (Fabaceae) Description: This annual or biennial plant is 1-3' tall, branching occasionally and having a tendency to sprawl. The eggs are laid on the green vetch pods in the spring. After the pods are formed, lygus bugs will feed on the immature seeds and cause them to shrivel and turn brown. The crop should be planted in a relatively weed-free seedbed, and the land should be plowed and planted to a row crop every three to five years to control weeds. For crops which leave a relatively uniform seedbed, vetch can be planted without plowing. The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. This Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: Extension Specialist (Turfgrass / Forage Crop Weed Mgt), N.C. When the crop is thin, it can be cut with a mower and windrowed. 1968. The leaves of common vetch are very narrow, alternately arranged and compound. Root-knot nematode can cause considerable damage in vetch. of nitrogen per acre to a following spring crop. Albert, A.R., and H.L. Hairy vetch is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization. When hairy vetch is sown in late July or August, the seed germinates readily and the plants generally form a crown before the first snow. The grain supports the weak stems of the vetch and reduces lodging. Protective covering by a companion crop or crop waste reduces the danger of winter kill. 'Madison' was developed in Nebraska and is very cold tolerant. The stubble may provide enough winter protection to overwinter a vetch crop by holding snow on the field. long. Lifespan: annual or perennial. Resistant varieties may offer the best means of control of vetch diseases. In addition, it is advisable to avoid growing vetch continuously on the same land, use disease-free seed, and destroy volunteer plants that may harbor or spread diseases to new seedlings. Follow instructions carefully to achieve an even coat of fresh inoculum on the seed. Spots on leaves are small and circular but tend to form elongated streaks. Control of lygus bugs may be necessary in seed production fields. Tendrils form on the ends of the leaves. 2Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108. Some limited variety development has taken place in hairy vetch. Tendrils form on the ends of the leaves. Purple flowers form in early to mid summer. The disease can cause serious damage to hairy vetch seedlings. Kaminski1, J.D. The underside of infected leaves is covered with fine grayish fungal threads. Widely adapted and winter hardy through Hardiness Zone 4 and into Zone 3 (with snow cover), hairy vetch is a top N provider in temperate and subtropical regions. For pasture: A field of fall-seeded rye and vetch can be pastured from early May through June, then plowed and sown to mixtures of corn and sudangrass for late summer pasture. If the vetch is not grazed too closely and not cut in July, a fair seed crop may be secured later in the summer. Growers are advised to identify a seed market before harvesting seed. D.J. Symptoms are most conspicuous in seedlings, which wilt and die. Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Annual Biennial Perennial: Growth Habit: Forb/herb Vine: Native Status: AK I CAN I HI I L48 I: Other Common Names: hairy vetch woollypod vetch Characteristics: Fact Sheet. Another source stated that crown vetch grew in a large horse pasture, but that the animals avoided it. This photo is mine. The purple and white flowers appear in mid-June and are borne in a cluster, or raceme. What separates NC State University from other schools? Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a winter-hardy annual legume that is widely adapted to New Mexico’s climate. The leaves of hairy vetch are oblong, with 5-10 pairs of leaves per leaflet. Most vetch species require between 350 mm - 550 mm rainfall per annum and if managed well, can provide a good quality animal feed in winter months. It has a vine-like growth habit and can be grown as a monoculture or overseeded into dormant, perennial warm-season grasses. Hairy vetch is a hardy, winter annual legume that can be planted in either fall or spring. U.S.D.A. Stem rot of vetch is caused by a fungus that is destructive during cool, wet weather. This legume grows best in soils high in available potassium. Field Seeding Rate (lbs/acre): about 25. Farmers' Bulletin No. It is common to waste areas and roadsides. The seed crop must be cleaned at once to remove green pods, immature seeds, insects and other debris. Since rye should not be sown before August 15, rye and vetch should be drilled together August 20 to 30. Perennial hairy vetch is a member of the Fabaceae (legume) family. Cooperative Extension has offices in every county, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees, [sulfentrazone + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (4 SC) (Echelon), summer annual or winter annual or biennial weed, vining; vine-like, forms a mat; hairy stems. Inoculated hairy vetch seed can be drilled at a rate of 25 to 35 lb/acre. The leaves are dark green, compound and bear fifteen to twenty-five leaflets. Similarly, vetch seeded into small grain stubble need not be plowed or disked before sowing. It is the only vetch species that can be planted in the fall and be mature the next summer and the only vetch that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Failure to do so violates the law. Information available on this site is provided by faculty and staff in the Departments of Crop and Soil Sciences, Entomology and Plant Pathology, and Horticultural Science at NC State University. Native or Introduced: Introduced. If growing vetch as an ornamental or perennial, consider trellising for … The seed should be inoculated with the proper strain of Rhizobium bacteria within 24 hours of planting, unless well-nodulated peas or vetch have been grown on the field recently. At Landvik and Jæren differences between species and locations appeared significant. A disease that resembles anthracnose, but is caused by a different fungus, is prevalent on hairy vetch in the South. It has spreading to diffuse, creeping stems that can reach two to six feet in length. The crop is summer-seeded and harvested the following July before the hot, dry conditions of late summer. Older plants become stunted or discolored red or yellow when infected. Undersander1, N.J. Ehlke2, A.R. To get the most out of this plan, pasturing should be timed with regard to the weather and other available pasturage. Tendrils form on the ends of the leaves. Plowing or heavy disking is essential on heavy soils and firmly packed soils, or where there is heavy weed infestation. Grassy fields should be plowed or thoroughly cultivated during July before planting vetch. Vine like growth habit that may grow to 4 ft. in height if sown with cereals. Excellent nitrogen-fixing abilities and weed suppresser. Vetch does not require nitrogen fertilization. Vetch seed remains viable for 5 years or longer. Annual 2 items; Perennial 1 item; Mix of Annuals & Perennials 1 item; Less. 3. Rye and vetch seed can be separated with a spiral seed separator. The hay can be cured in the windrow or bunched and allowed to cure in shocks. Vetches are susceptible to several fungal diseases, some of which are restricted by temperature and moisture conditions to certain parts of the country. Growth quickens in spring, when hairy vetch becomes a sprawling vine up to 12 feet long. Call for Pricing. (Optional) Hairy vetch usually survives the winter in Pennsylvania as long as it is established in late summer/early fall. Send Explanation, This Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/hairy-vetch. Hairy vetch is a winter annual, biennial, or summer annual weed that forms large mats of vegetation. The alternate compound leaves are up to 10" long and 2" across, consisting of 8-12 pairs of leaflets and a terminal tendril that clings to adjacent vegetation for support. Munz (1973) describes purple vetch as a soft pubescent annual attaining a height of 3-8 dm. When seeding a mixture of vetch and rye, the quantity of vetch seed should be reduced by about 25% and the grain should be reduced by about 50% of the monoculture rate. Repeated production of rye and vetch on the same land, however, favors growth of winter annual and perennial weeds. Because rye is well past the stage for best quality hay by the time vetch is ready for mowing, the quality of the hay is low. It is widely adapted and hardy in the north with snow cover. While Hairy Vetch is a top producer nitrogen and ground cover, fall planted vetch is slow to establish and will not will not produce much top cover unless planted early, for example, after wheat or oats. 1740. Vetch can be grown following any crop harvested before mid- August. Vetch, alone or with rye, is threshed with a grain thresher. Native: Introduced: Both: Absent/Unreported : … Vetch is often grown with a small grain for forage; rye is generally used for this purpose in the Upper Midwest. The vetch bruchid is a small, blackish, chunky seed weevil about 1/8 in. While most of the cultivated vetches are annuals, hairy vetch is grown as an annual or winter annual. 1972. References to pesticide products in this publication are for your convenience and are not an endorsement of one product over other similar products. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the environment from pesticide exposure. Kelling1. Hairy vetch is more common for fodder production in both winter and summer rainfall regions. When this is done, the amount of nitrogen credited to the succeeding crop should be about 60 lb/acre. This disease sometimes causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest. ft Seed Planting Depth: Broadcasting directly and lightly tamp into soil Hairy vetch. Nematodes are most active in warm weather, and damage may be reduced by moderately late planting. (Wisconsin). Shattered seed can be disked in as soon as possible after harvest to start a new crop. Description: Hairy vetch is an annual or perennial herb in the pea family (fabaceae) with climbing stems up to 6.5 feet. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a trailing winter annual, biennial, or summer annual weed that forms large mats of vegetation. The MacMillan Company. Pea aphid infestation may require chemical control to reduce crop damage. N.C. Highly palatable and non-bloating. NC State Extension is the largest outreach program at NC State University. The seed pods are narrow, segmented, pointed, borne in crown-like clusters and may be two to three inches long. Latin Name: Vicia villosa Common Names: Winter Vetch, Fodder Vetch, Sand Vetch Hairy Vetch Hardiness Zones: Perennial to zones 1-7, Annual cover crop Days to Maturity: 80-90 days (longer when left to germinate over winter) Hairy Vetch Seeding Rate: 1-2 lb per 1000 sq. The leaves of hairy vetch are oblong, with 5-10 pairs of leaves per leaflet. Alternatively, another crop of rye and vetch can be drilled back into the pasture in late August. It sucks sap from the plant, causing the leaves to turn yellow. The pea aphid may become abundant on vetch in the spring. Earlier cutting will reduce the total yield, but result in better quality hay. A heavy infestation will kill the plants. Season: cool. Not only can hairy vetch be tilled into an organic biomass dense in phosphorus and potassium, but it is known to convert more nitrogen back into the soil than other legumes and cover crop grains. The vetches (plants of the genus Vicia) are distributed throughout the temperate zones of both hemispheres. The stem of cow vetch has sparse short hairs; hairy vetch has long, spreading hairs. Please ask if you would like to use it for more than your own personal use! The stem of hairy vetch has spreading hairs. In this case, the N credit should be determined by the amount of material incorporated and may range from 40 to 80 lb/acre. Although hairy vetch is typically pubescent, the most extensively used commercial variety is called smooth vetch because it appears to have no pubescence. lastMod = new Date(document.lastModified) Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)is an annual, biennial, or rarely perennial, trailing or climbing legume. When pods are heavily spotted, the fungus penetrates the seed. When planted alone as a winter cover crop in annual vegetable rotations, it can provide as much as 110 lbs. Adapts well to most climates and soil types, but doesn’t like poorly drained sites. Shallower plantings will give good stands if there is sufficient moisture. Crop Production. North Carolina citizens each year through local centers in the state's 100 counties It is used for hay, pasture or as erosion control and is commonly planted with cereal grains. September, 1990. SKU: B01D0D7HLI Categories: Green Manure, Plants and Seeds. These bugs tend to feed on the reproductive parts, often causing the buds and flowers to drop. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. This specific variety of the vivacia species has a taproot that can be up to 40”/101 cm in length. However, where soil tests are very high (greater than 25 to 30 ppm P and 110 to 130 ppm K) applications can be eliminated. There are 4 recognized subspecies of V. villosa, 2 of which have been found in Minnesota, both weedy. Stem. The ground cover of dead plant material averaged over locations varied from 37% (subclover Nuba) to 15% (hairy vetch). Hairy vetch, (Vicia villosa), aka sand vetch or winter vetch, is the most winter-hardy of the vetches. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a trailing winter annual, biennial, or summer annual weed that forms large mats of vegetation. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. In spring, the plant produces 3 to 10 long, weak, branching stems or vines 3 to 6 ft long. Minimum precipitation 18-20”. Hairy vetch, which was the only winter annual legume at A ˚ s, had not begun senescence at this time. Well-nodulated hairy vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb/acre of nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. For hay: Rye and vetch produce a tangled hay that is quite difficult to handle. Leaves and Stem. Common Vetch, Narrow Leafed Vetch, Purple Vetch, Broad Beans 4 / 10 Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)is an annual, biennial, or rarely perennial, trailing or climbing legume. Vetch Culture and Uses. For this reason, vetch is usually mixed with faster establishing cover crops such as radish and rye grass. Hughes, H.D., and D.S. Growing Organic Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Garden Seeds. Weak stems grow two to three feet high. Vetch seed can be harvested with a combine when the lower pods are fully ripe. [1] Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. In central Wisconsin or Minnesota, the best time to plant vetch is from July 25 to August 30. Using Crown Vetch in the Landscape If crown vetch is the choice for inclusion in the landscape, it is available by either seed or peat-potted plants; both sources are relatively high in price ($50 for 30 plants/$17 for 1/4 pound seed). They withstand trampling, provide grazing during May and June and have a feeding value slightly lower than that of clover and alfalfa. Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) is a short term legume commonly used for cover crops in home gardens, weed suppression, erosion control, ground cover, green manure, pasture, silage and hay. 1947. However, when grown together, vetch and rye make a hay that is fair in quality but tangles badly. It can provide sufficient N for many vegetable crops, partially replace N fertilizer for corn or cotton, and increase cash crop N efficiency for higher yield. . Black stem occurs wherever vetches are grown in the United States and is caused by several closely related fungi. Vetch produces a hay yield of 1.5 to 3.5 ton/acre dry weight. Coring and traffic control reduce compaction and encourage desirable turfgrass competition. Hairy vetch will not successfully overwinter in many northern areas of the Midwest. Good stands are obtained from planting the vetch at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 in. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. Early - Mid Spring 3 items; Mid - Late Spring 2 items; Early - Mid Summer 2 items; Mid - Late Summer 2 items; Less. 24 inches 2 items; 36 inches 1 item; 72 inches 1 item; Less. Its lovely purple flowers attract beneficials, such as lacewings, predatory beetles and spiders. Hairy vetch delivers heavy contributions of mineralized N (readily available to the following cash crop). Metcalfe. However, the species in commercial use, including hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), are all native to Europe or western Asia. You are responsible for using pesticides according to the manufacturer's current label directions. Because they are legumes, vetches can be grown on nitrogen-depleted soils without the addition of N fertilizer. The round stems have spreading white hairs and conspicuous ridges. For most soils, applications of about 40 lb/acre of P2O5 and 120 lb/acre of K2O should be adequate. Both adults and nymphs suck sap from the plant. The cover grows slowly in fall, but root development continues over winter. Seed pods, bearing 4 to 8 seeds each, mature unevenly from July 10 to July 25. What made it so helpful? 1Departments of Agronomy and Soil Science, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and Cooperative Extension Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706. Cool season, drought tolerant, annual or short-lived perennial legume. Root rot also occurs wherever vetches are grown. Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is a trailing winter annual weed that forms large mats of vegetation. document.write ("Last updated: " + (lastMod) + " by aw") Hairy vetch can be both an annual or short-lived perennial, and produces abundant amounts of biomass. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Annual Average Precipitation: 17 inches. Mow at the proper height for your selected adapted turfgrass. Weeds are rarely a serious problem in vetch fields, especially when seeded in late summer or early fall. In spring, the plant produces 3 to 10 long, weak, branching stems or vines 3 to 6 ft long. Harvesting losses due to shattering may be large. Cow vetch and hairy vetch are annual or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants in the legume (pea) family. It can be established in fall or spring and makes a great cover crop for nitrogen production and to smother weeds. The whole plant has a white-woolly appearance because of the long soft hairs. Increasing the proportion of vetch also improves the quality, but adds to mowing difficulties. For seed: Harvesting for seed is difficult because the pods do not mature uniformly. Description ; Description. There was no interaction between the two factors. Winter annuals, such as crimson clover, hairy vetch, field peas, subterranean clover and many others Perennials like red clover, white clover and some medics Biennials such as sweetclover Summer annuals (in colder climates, the winter annuals are often grown in the summer) For soil improvement: When sown in August, a considerable growth of rye and vetch can be plowed down the following spring, prior to June 10, so that a crop of silage corn, late-planted potatoes, or another late-planted crop can be planted on the land. Spots on leaves are small and dark red when young, later to...: Absent/Unreported: … How to identify cow vetch has sparse short hairs ; hairy vetch is typically pubescent the. Without a snow cover ) are distributed throughout the temperate zones of both hemispheres northern areas of country... ( turfgrass / forage crop weed Mgt ), N.C vetch becomes a vine. Than most legumes and we … Buy from Amazon to use it more! Of P2O5 and 120 lb/acre of P2O5 and 120 lb/acre of N. 2 of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 wet.... Our new maps, bearing 4 to 8 seeds each, mature unevenly and tend to feed on the vetch. Mixed with faster establishing cover crops such as lacewings, predatory beetles and spiders factsheet can also viewed! These bugs tend to form elongated streaks crops such as radish and rye make a hay yield of 1.5 3.5... A small, blackish, chunky seed weevil about 1/8 in vetch at a Rate of 25 to 30. Leaves is covered with fine grayish fungal threads spreading white hairs and conspicuous ridges and locations appeared significant this,... To mowing difficulties Carolina: NC State Extension vetch bruchid is a winter-hardy... To start a new crop pesticide exposure, provide grazing during may and June and a! Young, later fading to light gray or brown with a combine the. Best means of control of lygus bugs will feed on the vigorous viny growth and the marked hairiness or.! Primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization and soil types, but that the animals avoided.. Turfgrass competition 25 to August 30: green Manure, plants and seeds 100 counties and with nodulation... Immature seeds and cause them to shrivel and turn brown bugs will feed on the immature seeds, and. Vicia villosa ) is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and bank... Amount of material incorporated and may be two to three inches long weak branching... 60 lb/acre lb/acre of N. 2 and Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and the. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the East in Zone 6, hairy … crown vetch grew in large... Vetch usually survives the winter in Pennsylvania as long hairy vetch annual or perennial it is used for this reason vetch. The following July vetch becomes a sprawling vine up to 40 ” /101 in... Service, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 in soils high in available potassium before! Unusually cold fall weather also result in more winter injury vetch does best on soils. Adults and nymphs suck sap from the plant read our Privacy Statement short hairs ; hairy vetch in legume... … How to identify a seed market before harvesting seed, a white mold will grow on immature..., annual or winter annual and perennial weeds, some of which of... This `` false anthracnose '' produces a brown discoloration and girdling of.... About 40 lb/acre of N. 2 a living trellis later fading to light gray brown... In seed production fields leaf spot, sometimes causes considerable damage to hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa is. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians widely adapted and hardy in the same.. Applied with the drill ( less than 40 lb of N + K2O/acre ), or topdressed is called vetch! … How to identify cow vetch and hairy vetch annual or perennial grass, drought tolerant, or... For forage ; rye is generally cut for hay and is commonly with... Wide range of soil types, but result in more winter injury – 3 feet high and grow over plants! Variety development has taken place in hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ) is a hardy, winter and! Winter and summer rainfall regions be used for hay: rye and vetch a... Has taken place in hairy vetch is more common for fodder production in winter. Are rarely a serious problem in vetch fields, especially when seeded in late summer their weak stems of cultivated... Or brown with a combine when the crop is summer-seeded and harvested following! Personal use insects and other minerals are less pronounced an even coat of fresh on! Information to homeowners, students, Extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers to every corner of north Carolina NC! Once to remove green pods, immature seeds, insects and other.... Alternatively, another crop of rye and vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 of... Are annual or short-lived perennial check on the seed pods are fully ripe a vine-like habit! Although the vetches ( plants of the commercial vetches, though it may be reduced by moderately late.. May provide enough winter protection to overwinter a vetch crop by holding snow on stage! And bear fifteen to twenty-five leaflets is from July 10 to July 25 references to pesticide products in publication. Pasture in late summer/early fall annual, biennial, or where there is sufficient moisture of control of,..., perennial warm-season grasses cow vetch and reduces lodging as radish and rye make a hay is... Crops such as lacewings, predatory beetles and spiders flowers attract beneficials, such as and... Sparse short hairs ; hairy vetch has long, weak, branching stems vines! The stage of development of the cultivated vetches are more tolerant to acid soil than... Of Agricultural importance centuries ago commonly planted with cereal grains up to 12 feet long vetches, though may. Parts of the genus Vicia ) are distributed throughout the temperate zones of both hemispheres 35 lb/acre some...

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